The name Ranchi comes from "archi" an Kurukh word for the farmer's "baton" in use while plaughing. Before that up to 1927, this place (Ranchi) was known as "Kishunpur". The area was an agricultural locality and Doranda ('duran' means Dance & 'da ah' is water - Mundari words), in between Hinoo & Harmoo River was a better known place for its military base and garrison. The present Ranchi was originally known as the village Archi. Ranchi is a prominent political, commercial, industrial, medical and educational hub of eastern India.
Geographically, Ranchi is located on southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau system. The area surrounding Ranchi has been endowed with natural attractions and it is referred to as the "City of Waterfalls". The most popular waterfalls are Dasham, Hundru, Jonha Falls, Hirni and Panchghat, which are all active perennially.
The Subarnarekha river and its tributaries constitute the local river system. Dams in Kanke, Rukka and Hatia have been built over these channels to cater to the water requirements of the local population.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its combination with dense tropical forests ensures that it enjoys a comparatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state.
Ranchi has a sub-tropical climate. Temperature ranges from maximum 37 to 20°C during summer, and minimum 22 to 3°C during winter. The annual rainfall is about 1530 mm. From June to September the rainfall level is about 1,100 mm.
As of 2001 India census, Ranchi had a population of 846,454. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Ranchi has an average literacy rate of 74%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 68%. In Ranchi, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.
According to the current estimates, the population of the city is now about 1,300,000. The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and marketing companies, the city witnessed the influx of migrants. Ranchi has always enjoyed a cosmopolitan environment and still entails a good mix of people from different regions of the country. Ranchi is the largest city in Jharkhand.
Ranchi has a number of government and privately run schools and colleges. Ranchi has emerged as one among the best schooling base in whole country. One of the best Engineering schools in India, Birla Institute of Technology is located in Mesra, Ranchi.
Most of the government-run schools in Ranchi are affiliated to Jharkhand Academic Council, while most of the private schools are affiliated to ICSE and/or CBSE boards. A number of Christian Schools are Convents or are run by the Jesuit missionaries of the Roman Catholic, Gossner, Evangelical and Lutheran Churches and the Church of North India.
Most of the colleges and institutions of higher education of Ranchi are under the jurisdiction of Ranchi University. There are also Agicultural and Veterinary Colleges which are part of the Birsa Agricultural University located at Kanke.
Schools of Ranchi -
- Army School, Bariatu
- Balika Siksha Bhawan, Lalpur
- Bishop's School, Bahu Bazaar
- Bishop Westcott Boys' School, Namkum
- Bishop Westcott Girls' School, Doranda
- Bishop Westcott Girls' School, Namkum
- Bridgeford School, Tupudana
- BSV High School, Nibaranpur
- D.A.V Bariatu, Bariatu, Ranchi
- D.A.V Gandhi Nagar, Gandhi Nagar, Kanke Road
- D.A.V Hehal, Hehal, Ranchi
- D.A.V International School, Bariatu
- D.A.V Kapil Dev, New A.G. Co-Operative Colony, Kadru, Ranchi
- Delhi Public School, Satellite Colony
- Greenland Public School Premnagar, Hatia, Ranchi-3
- Guru Nank School,Pee Pee Compound, Ranchi
- H.E.C. High School, Dhurwa, Ranchi
- Jawahar Vidya Mandir, Shyamali Colony
- Kairali School, Sector-2, Dhurwa
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, Dipatoli
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, Hinoo
- Kendriya Vidyalaya, Namkum
- Lionel Edward's Bengali Boys High School, OCC
- Loreto Convent, North Office Para, Doranda
- Oxford(N) School, Ranchi
- Oxford Public School, Samlong, Ranchi-1
- Sacred Heart, Hulhundu
- Saffire International School, Khunti Road
- Saraswati Shishu Vidya Mandir,Dhurwa
- SS Doranda Girls' High School, Doranda
- St. Aloysius High School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, CCL Ranchi
- St. Anthony's School, North Office Para, Doranda
- St. Francis School, Harmu Housing Colony
- St. John School, Cambrian Public School, Kanke Road
- St. Mary's (N) School, South Office Para, Doranda
- St. Pauls' School, Bahu Bazaar
- St. Thomas School,Sector-3, Dhurwa
- St. Xavier's School, South Office Para, Doranda
- Surendranath Centenary School, Dipatoli
- Taurian World School, Khunti Road
- Tender Heart School, Tupudana
- Vivekananda Vidya Mandir, Sector-2, Dhurwa
- Zila School, Ranchi
Ranchi College, St Xavier's College, Yogoda Satsang College, Gossner College, Marwari College, Women's College, Nirmala College, J.N. College, Doranda College S S Memorial College
Institutions of Ranchi –
One of the best Engineering schools in India, Birla Institute of Technology is located in Mesra, Ranchi. Xavier Institute of Social Service, Birla Institute of Technology, Rajendra Institute of Medical Science, Central Institute of Psychiatry, Birsa Agriculture University, National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology.
Transportation and commuting
Ranchi has road connectivity with 2 National Highways (NH-23 & 33) crossing it and NH-75 originating here. Recently the state government with the support of NHDC has constituted a plan to expand the road connectivity of different district headquarters to this capital city with 4-lane highways of international standards.
One peculiarity of this capital city is that there are no local bus services. For commuting one can hire or share an Auto Rickshaw. Taxis too are available.
The city has one State Bus Terminus where buses are available for travelling to Bokaro Steel City, Jamshedpur, Patna, Gaya, Bhagalpur, Alipurduar, Siliguri, Kolkata, Rourkela. The State Bus Terminus is located near the Ranchi Railway station.
Khad Garha is a Private Bus Terminus where buses are available for multiple destinations within Jharkhand. There are also buses available for Kolkata, Banaras, Rourkela and cities of other eastern states. AC Bus Services are available for Patna, Kolkata and Jamshedpur. Ratu Road is another Private Bus Terminus where buses are available for destinations in Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa and Chattisgarh.
Ranchi has witnessed growth in railway connectivity during the past 3 to 4 years. Growing demand and grants in the annual Railway budgets made sure that Ranchi got its deserved share of allocation. Currently Ranchi has frequent connectivity with all major centres in India.
Major Rail Connections From Ranchi: New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata (Howrah), Chennai, Bangalore, Cochin, Allepey, Jaipur, Patna, Bhubaneshwar, Alipurduar etc.
The Railway Stations in the city are: Tatisilwai, Namkum, Ranchi Junction, Argora & Hatia
Ranchi has a domestic airport - "Birsa Munda Airport" (Code: IXR) managed by the Airports Authority of India. It is situated at an elevation of 2120 ft. The airport terminal is situated approximately 7 km South of the city centre, in Hinoo. The single runway airport is approximately 8000 feet in length and supports navigation/traffic control systems such as HIRL, PAPI, ASPL and Apron Flood lights.
Ranchi is connected by air with several of the major metros of the country. It has 5 daily connections to Delhi and 3 to Kolkatta. It is also connected with cities like Mumbai, Patna, Bhubaneshwar and Chandigarh by daily scheduled services. Airlines include Indian, JetLite, Deccan and MDLR.
New budget airlines have announced plans to connect Ranchi with other destinations.
Trade, commerce and industry
As an important administrative and military base of the eastern India during the British Raj, Ranchi developed as an important centre of trade and commerce, including a traditional base for sericulture and manufacture of shellac. Villages around Ranchi has been described as the 'vegetable bowl' of Jharkhand and truckloads of green vegetables are transported from the city to different parts of Jharkhand, Bihar, as also to Kolkata.
After India gained independence, Ranchi continued to grow and a number of industrial facilities were located in and around the city, and it emerged as an important industrial centre. Along with other two industrial townships of Jamshedpur and Bokaro, it completes the industrial structure of Jharkhand. Techno-industrial facilities of Ranchi include Heavy Engineering Corporation, MECON, SAIL's R&D Facility, High Tension Insulator factory, CCL, CMPDI, IICM, Usha Martin, Usha Beltron Shipping Corporation of India.
Important Public Sector Undertakings & Govt. Institutions
• Heavy Engineering Corporation Ltd, Dhurwa
• Garden Reach Ship Builder's Ltd, Dhurwa
• MECON Ltd. Doranda
• Research & Development Centre for SAIL
Also known as RDCIS, the centre was established in 1974 as the corporate R&D of Steel Authority of India Ltd. Today it is the largest and most reputed Steel Research Centre of the country. The centre boasts of over 350 scientists and a huge array of sophisticated research /test equipment. Besides addressing to the R&D needs of SAIL (Steel Authority of India Ltd), the centre also provides diverse scientific services to other organisations on contract basis.
• CET, SAIL
• MTI, SAIL
• National Institute of Foundry Forge Technology, Hatia
• Central Coalfield Limited (CCL)
Central Government Offices:
• The Accountant General's Office, Doranda
• Income Tax Office, Main Road
• Divisional Railway Manager's Office, Hatia
• BSNL, Albert Ekka Chowk
• General Post Office, Albert Ekka Chowk
• General Post Office, Doranda
Health care facilities and important hospitals:
The city is traditionally the medical centre for the entire region of about 400 km in radius. Many hospitals, both private and public, dot the city.
• The Rajendra Medical College now known as Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences RIMS is the largest of three medical colleges in the state. Excellent Neurodiagnostic facilities exist in the Advanced Diagnostic Centre.
• The most famous Indian corporate hospital chain (Apollo Hospitals Group) runs a private hospital on the outskirts of the city. This hospital provides modern Superspeciality Health care in a Scenic setting. Services include (State of Art Coronary care units, Angiography, Bypass Surgery, Open heart surgery  Neurosurgery Kidney transplant and so forth).
• In the field of Tuberculosis, the Ramakrishna Mission is running a TB Sanatorium on the Ranchi-Khunti Road near Tupudana for nearing 6 decades.
• Apollo Hospital
• Seva Sadan
• HEC Hospital
• MECON Hospital
• Raj Hospital
• Guru Nanak Hospital
• Saint Barnabas Hospital
• Seven Day Adventist Hospital
• K.C.Roy Memorial Hospital
• E.S.I. Hospital (Namkum)
• Jinwani Hospital
• Ranchi is famous across India for its psychiatric care centers. Ranchi has some of the largest facilities for mentally-challenged patients at Kanke. There are three major hospitals taking care of patients with psychiatric illnesses.
1. Central Institute of Psychiatry, Kanke
2. RINPAS, Kanke
3. Davis Institute of Neuropsychiatry, Kanke
Parks and resorts
• NakshatraVan, near Raj Bhawan (Governor's House)
• Birsa Zoological Park - 14 km from Ranchi
• Night Safari - 14 km from Ranchi
• Deer Park - 16 km from Ranchi on Ranchi-Khunti Road
• Sidhu Kaanhu Park - Heart of the city
• Dr. Zakhir Hussain Park - Heart of the city
• Ranchi Hill - Pahari Baba Temple - Heart of the city.
• Tagore hill - Morabadi, 5 km from the center of the city
• Rock Garden - Kanke Road, 4 km from the center of the city
• Fun Castle - Ratu, 7 km from Ranchi
• Crocodile Farm - Ormanjhi, 19 km from Ranchi
Other than these recognized parks (most of which have entry fee), there are many open playgrounds which are vanishing fast as the government/administration has decided that massive constructions on available government lands (which will create more traffic and pollution in the choking narrow roads) is the way to progress, and the fact that a city requires open playgrounds where youngsters can go to play and have healthy recreational activity is easily overlooked.
• Ranchi Lake - Heart of the city
• Dhurwa Dam
• Rukka Dam - 16 km from Ranchi
• Aqua World - Heart of the city
• Dassam Falls - About 40 km from Ranchi on Ranchi-Tata NH Road
• Jonha Falls - About 35 km from Ranchi
• Sita Falls - near to Jonha falls
• Hundru Falls - 30 km from Ranchi
• Hirni Falls - 90 km towards Chakradharpur
• Panch Ghaat - 50 km from ranchi
• Rani fall (Soeko) - 55 km from ranchi
• Perwaghagh (Torpa) - 75 km from ranchi
• Ghaghri fall (Bero) - 45 km from ranchi
• Kanke Dam - 7 km from main road ranchi
• Baghmunda(Basia) - 100 km from Ranchi
• Kaanti Fall (Near Amjharia, Kuru) - 50 Kms from Ranchi
The city has a lot of Hindi newspapers , the most popular among them being Prabhat Khabar followed by Dainik Jagran, Aaj, Ranchi Express & Hindustan.
There are also some local news channels delivered through the cable TV network. PBL Nazar, Jharkhand TV etc. Besides these local channels, ETV Jharkhand and Sahara Samay Jharkhand are two regional channels for this state run by Indian news networks.
Besides the AIR (All India Radio) run Vividh Bharti 103.3 FM, radio station, there are private FM Channels as well. Radiomantra 91.9 FM...(Life ka mantra) is owned by the Dainik Jagran Media house. Big 92.7 FM which a joint venture by Reliance, 104.8 Radio Dhoom owned by Prabhat Khabar has recently been launched and the B.A.G group's venture 106.4 FM Radio Dhamaal comprises the FM channel network in Ranchi.
Website / New Media – The public website of Ranchi District by Jharkhand Org – http://ranchi.jharkhand.org.in
Important Land Marks
• Albert Ekka Chowk
• Shaheed Chowk
• Argora Chowk
• Harmoo Chowk
• Booty More
• Kanta Toli Chowk
• Over Bridge, Nibaranpur
• Over Bridge, Kadru
• Rly Over Pass, BM Rajpath, Dibdih
• Boubazar Chowk
• Club Chowk
• Vivekanand Chowk
• Rajendra Chowk
• Birsa Chowk
• HEC Golchakker
• Dhurwa more
• Morabadi Maidan
• Hinoo Chowk
• AG More
• Kutchery Chowk
• Ratan Talkies
• Fun Castle (Ratu)
• Karamtoli Chowk
• Lalpur Chowk
• Namkum Chowk (Army Base)
• Kali Nagar (Tea Garden, Namkum)
• Sadabahar Chowk
• Kokar Chowk
• Ranchi Express (Upper Bazar)
• Chandni Chowk (Kanke Road)
• Gandhi Nagar (Kanke Road)
• Jawahar Nagar (Kanke Road)
• Karbala Chowk (Church road)
• Bariatu Chowk
• Ratu park
• Ashok Nagar
• Piska More
• Ratu Road
• RMCH/RIMS/Medical Chowk
Ranchi RING Road: A ring road circling around the City has been proposed by the government to ease the traffic chaos in the city. The first phase of the work has already started and it covers almost one quarter of the complete RING. (23 KMS). In the first stage, the state government would undertake the construction work of connecting the state capital's outskirts — Kathi Tand (near Ratu on Ranchi-Daltonganj highway) and Karma (on Ranchi-Ramgarh road). It would help reduce the pressure of heavy vehicles on the streets of the state capital, as the buses and trucks plying on Ranchi-Daltonganj, Ranchi-Gumla and Ranchi-Ramgarh routes would not enter the city. The state capital's inhabitants, particularly those residing in the localities dotting the busy Ratu Road and Kanta Toli (Hazaribagh Road), would heave a sigh of relief after the project work starts. Several fatal accidents have taken place in these two areas. In the original specifications, two flyovers were proposed at Kathi Tand (which comes under NH-75 on Ranchi-Daltonganj stretch) and at Karma (NH-33). The state government can undertake the flyover project only after getting clearance from the Union ministry of Road Transport and Highways. The total length of the complete RING road has been proposed to be 85 KMs.
New IIM at Ranchi: A new Indian Institute of Management at Ranchi has been proposed recently. This is a matter of huge honour for the people of Jharkhand to host the prestigious institutes in the land of Jharkhand. As of now, the Jharkhand government has already allotted 214 acres of land for construction of Indian Institute of Management (IIM) at Kanke thus paving the way for country's premier B-School in the state. The decision to allot land for IIM was taken after the Union government decided to set up a B-School in Jharkhand in 2008. The Centre has also agreed to provide financial support of Rs 250 crore for the institute, which will become functional by 2010.